Review of “The Second Amendment: A Biography” by Michael Waldman

Note: This review is by my husband Jim.

Michael Waldman is a professor of law at New York University. The Second Amendment: A Biography is an erudite and informative analysis of the history of the interpretation of that amendment by the Founding Fathers, the Supreme Court, and various legal scholars. Waldman states:

For 218 years, judges overwhelmingly concluded that the amendment authorized states to form militias….then in 2008, the U.S. Supreme Court upended two centuries of precedent. In…District of Columbia V. Heller [it] declared the Constitution confers a right to own a gun for self-defense in the home.”

On a literal level, this book is the story of how that change came about. On a “meta” level, it is a description of the process by which the Constitution is interpreted, and how interpretations evolve over time. On a societal level, the content of this book is extremely important because of what it says about the power of the government, on any tier, to deal with the current spate of gun violence.

18778874

The Second Amendment has a curious grammatical construction:

“A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.”

How does the reference to “the militia” in the introductory phrase affect the interpretation of the amendment as a whole? Waldman’s historical analysis makes clear that the debates that preceded the adoption of the amendment were concerned with the role of the militia (what we would now call the National Guard), and had virtually nothing to say about an individual’s right “to keep and bear arms.” Moreover, the amendment says that the right to bear arms is that of the people (presumably acting in the context of the militia), not individuals. Ironically, it must be noted that the militias were composed of white males who were expected to supply their own weapons to participate in military training. Those men were not merely allowed to keep rifles; they were required to do so.

revolutionary_militia

Waldman goes into detail about just how the meaning of the amendment changed over time. His concluding chapter contains some very interesting observations, the most striking of which I quote below:

“A full scan of American history shows that the public, fully engaged, has made constitutional law every bit as much as jurists and lawyers….[T]he reason the Court has pronounced that limited right [individual gun ownership] is not because the Framers of the Second Amendment intended it to confer it. (They didn’t.) Nor is it because of a dictionary from 1730, or a state court judicial interpretation from 1830, or even a Supreme Court case from 1939. Rather, it is because the people today believe there is such a right. The country has evolved—the Constitution is living, as it were—and the widespread acceptance of some form of gun ownership is part of the way Americans think. Not then, now. [It reflects] a popular consensus won by focused activists.”

Screen Shot 2016-01-11 at 6.12.57 AM

Evaluation: This book brings a lot of light to some issues about which one often finds only heat. It should be read by all citizens concerned with gun violence and gun rights.

Note: For those interested in a more thorough review, you will find one on our sister site, Legal Legacy. And for a satiric could-have-almost-happened take on the issue, see this humorous imagined conversation between James Madison and Thomas Jefferson from The New Yorker.

Rating: 4/5 stars

Published by Simon & Schuster, 2014

Posted in Book Review | Tagged | 3 Comments

Review of “The Restaurant Critic’s Wife” by Elizabeth LaBan

Lila and Sam Soto have moved to Philadelphia from New Orleans in order for Sam to take his dream job of restaurant critic for the Philadelphia Record. Lila was a very successful point person heading publicity and crisis management for a hotel chain, but in any event she got pregnant, so she reluctantly gave up her job. Now Lila is pregnant again, and soon has another baby, Henry, who is greatly resented by his 3-year-old big sister Hazel. Lila has her hands full.

25828495

Although Lila excelled at crisis management for her career, her home life seems to be one disaster after another. Lila is constantly exhausted (Sam didn’t help as promised after Henry was born), Hazel is a spoiled brat, and Lila responds to Hazel’s whining and tantrums by shoving something sugary at her, reinforcing the bad behavior.

Sam not only is insistent that Lila not work, but doesn’t even want her to have any friends, lest he somehow get outed as the new food critic. He even wears disguises (that are usually ridiculous) to area restaurants. Lila feels bored and unfulfilled on account of no longer working, and is disheartened by experiencing nothing but failure and frustration at home.

Lila does eventually try to make a few friends, but picks up on Sam’s paranoia and becomes suspicious of them, which negatively affects the relationships.

Sam, inconsiderate, almost pathologically self-centered, obsessive and controlling, seems borderline psycho. Frankly, I only kept reading in the hope Lila would wake up and get the heck out.

In addition, the story was very repetitive; Lila nursing Henry, Lila dealing with Hazel’s tantrums, Lila dealing with Sam’s paranoia, Lila sneaking social interaction – interspersed with descriptions of restaurant meals. Repeat.

Lila’s mental reasoning to reconcile herself to, and work with, her situation was disappointing, and not totally convincing for such a competent person in the workplace.

Evaluation: I was disappointed with this book, which I thought had so much potential. But the story was too repetitive, the husband was too crazy, and the wife too accommodating for me to have enjoyed it.

Rating: 2.5/5

Published by Lake Union Publishing, 2016

Posted in Book Review | Tagged | 4 Comments

Black History Month Review of “Between The World and Me” by Ta-Nehisi Coates

The author was inspired to write Between the World and Me by James Baldwin’s 1963 classic book The Fire Next Time, which Baldwin wrote in the form of letters to his nephew. Here Coates writes to his 15-year-old son Samori, both about what it means to be black in America, and about his overwhelming love – as well as hopes and fears, for Samori.

screen_shot_20150715_at_1.24.12_pm.png.CROP.rtstoryvar-large.24.12_pm

Coates frames his rage in poetic verse as he charts his personal growth through the years. Underlying the story is a legacy of fear that he has had to live with, first for his own life, and now for the life of his son, who could be killed at any time just for looking the wrong way or being in the wrong place – in short, for being black.

He explains what has driven the black-on-black violence of street gangs; the appeal of Malcolm X to young disillusioned blacks; the sense of powerlessness that drives both; and most saliently, the disparity between the realities of black and white lives. He talks about both the history of civilization and the history of America in terms of the white-washed patina that has always distorted the role of blacks. He constantly references the American Dream, and how it reflects white lives, even as it was built on the bodies of black lives, who are tempted, confused, and alienated by its unattainability.

Coates tells his son: “Here is what I would like for you to know: In America, it is traditional to destroy the black body — it is heritage.” But ultimately, as Coates further advises him, “This is your country, this is your world, this is your body, and you must find some way to live within the all of it.”

Evaluation: This powerful, riveting testimonial is also a confirmation that the personal is indeed political, especially in a country which is institutionally designed to favor whites over people of color, males over females, straights over gays, and paradoxically, myths over honesty. I consider it essential reading for Americans.

Rating: 4.5/5

Note: Winner of the 2015 National Book Award for Nonfiction

Published in hardcover by Spiegel & Grau, 2015. Audio version available (215 minutes) from Penguin Random House Audio Publishing, read by the author.

Posted in Book Review | Tagged | 11 Comments

Black History Month Kid Lit Review of “28 Days: Moments in Black History That Changed the World” by Charles R. Smith Jr.

28_days_1024x1024

The author wanted to create a work for Black History Month that would go beyond the familiar names and faces bruited every year. His thoughts on this phenomenon that he gave in an interview are worth quoting, because they are so true!

“I remember sitting in my sixth grade class at Marian Anderson Elementary in Compton, California, when February rolled around and my teacher, Mr. Johnson, hung up the faces of Black History Month around the room. Sojourner Truth, Rosa Parks, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. surrounded us until early March. Each picture had information about the person depicted on the back of the image, and the pictures hadn’t changed since first grade. With no new countenances added each year, it was as if once black Americans had achieved equal rights in the law books, our history was complete.

How could that be? Weren’t there others who accomplished great things, past and present? That question became the focus of 28 Days: Moments in Black History That Changed the World.”

He begins in 1776, during the birth of America, and ends in the present with America’s first black president. He includes an extra day at the end – not only for “leap year” Februarys, but to show that “great things can happen on any day to anyone” and to suggest that Black History is not limited to 28 days!

Smith_BTB1-300x182

It will no doubt be a relief to teachers as well as students to find such nice material (presented in free verse) on people other than “the usual suspects.” While he does feature Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, and Jackie Robinson, he also has stories about such notable but perhaps lesser-known African Americans as Crispus Attucks, Daniel Hale Williams, Henry Johnson and Matthew Henson.

9781596438200.IN05

The form of the author’s verse changes according to the message he wants to convey. The spread on Althea Gibson and Arthur Ashe features lines that go back and forth like a tennis match. The verse devoted to Malcolm X reflects the way his words were meant to educate, and to convey a broader message to his followers.

Smith_BTB7-300x181

I particularly like the author’s concluding sentiments for Day 29:

“What will today bring,
what will today be,
will today be the day
you make history?

….

Today is the day,
today is to be.”

Illustrator Shane W. Evans, a three-time NAACP Image Award nominee, just keeps getting better and better. His collage and oil pictures employ a vivid palette with the dominant colors reflecting the story being told. For example, he uses blues and silver for the two-page spread on the first male and female astronauts, and the bright colors of Africa for his spread on Nelson Mandela.

9781596438200.IN06

Evaluation: One can only hope that this book’s appeal will not be confined to February.

Rating: 5/5

Published by Neal Porter/Roaring Brook Press, a division of Holtzbrinck Publishing Holdings, 2015

9781596438200-in08

Posted in Black History Month, Book Review | Tagged , | 1 Comment

Review of “A Dying Fall” by Elly Griffiths

Note: Spoilers for previous books in this series

The fifth book in the Ruth Galloway Mystery Series begins two years after the series began. In the first three books, we met Ruth Galloway, now 42, who is a self-described overweight forensic archeologist at the (fictional) University of North Norfolk, and Detective Chief Inspector Harry Nelson of the Norfolk Police. The two teamed up to solve several crimes since Ruth is an expert on bones, and now Ruth is seconded to the Serious Crime Unit, which is headed by Nelson.

15814458

As this book begins, Ruth receives word that an old friend from her university days, Dan Golding, has died in a fire. Coincidentally, the next day she received a letter from him. He wrote that he believed he had found “The Raven King” in an archeological dig, and wanted her to come give a second opinion on the bones. But he also said there is something making him very frightened. She wonders if he was murdered, and calls Nelson to ask if he has any police contacts up in Lancashire, the area where Nelson used to live and work. He agrees to contact his old police mate Sandy Macleod, the DCI at Blackpool CID, and let her know. Thinking about Sandy causes Nelson to suggest to Michelle that they take their vacation in Blackpool, where they can also visit their parents.

Meanwhile, Ruth receives a call from Clayton Henry, Dan’s boss at (fictional) Pendle University, who asks Ruth to come look at the bones discovered by Dan. The university needs funds, and Clayton is hoping the discovery will be lucrative. It certainly might well be; King Arthur was sometimes known as the Raven King.

Ruth makes her way to Lytham, a small town in the area, along with her 18-month-old daughter Kate and her friend Cathbad, godfather to Kate, who is coming along to babysit.

It turns out Dan was indeed the victim of foul play, and there are plenty of likely suspects, including members of a shadowy group called The White Hand, a sub-sect of white supremacist groups obsessed with King Arthur. Perhaps Dan, who was Jewish, was a victim of this group.

The story lines converge as Ruth tries to ascertain (1) were these actually the bones of someone who could have been King Arthur? (2) why was Dan afraid? (3) why would someone kill him? and (4) why is Ruth receiving threatening texts to stay away from the bones? As both Nelson and Ruth get closer to answers, the tension increases, as does the danger to Ruth.

Underlying this story is the ongoing relationships of Ruth and Nelson (who is married to Michelle), and Cathbad and one of Nelson’s detectives, Judy, who is now married to Darren.

Evaluation: This is a very appealing series, with well-drawn fascinating characters who seem very much like real people. I also love that one comes away from these books learning a great deal more than how to commit a murder. Although King Arthur’s existence has been disputed, he is still very much “alive” to the people of England, Scotland, Cornwall, and Wales. The author shares some of the background of the mythology surrounding Arthur in this book.

Rating: 3.5/5

Published in the U.S. by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013

Posted in Book Review | Tagged | 3 Comments

Review of “Saga: Volume Five” by Fiona Staples & Brian K. Vaughan

Saga_Vol5cover

This outstanding graphic novel series continues the story of the little family of Marko, Alana, and their baby (now toddler) Hazel, who are struggling to stay together in spite of a war between their two peoples.

Alana, Marko, and Hazel shortly after Hazel's birth

Alana, Marko, and Hazel shortly after Hazel’s birth

Alana is from the planet Landfall, where inhabitants have wings on their backs, and Marko is from its moon, Wreath, where all people have horns on their heads. The two defied all convention (and propaganda, viz: those people have horns on their heads!) and fell in love. Hazel was born with both horns and wings, and it is Hazel who narrates the story.

There are many other memorable species and characters in this series, such as the people (and even animals) of the Robot Kingdom, who have CRTs for heads. Prince Robot III is leading the intergalactic hunt for Marko and Alana, because their love story gives lie to the party line that the people from these two species can’t, and never will, get along.

One of the members of the Robot Kingdom, Dengo, believes that the Robot Kingdom cares more about the war between the wings and the horns than about its own people. Dengo is also devastated because his own son died, and in a desperate measure to force the Robot Kingdom to pay attention to its people, he kidnapped the robot princeling and now is holding Alana, Marko’s mom, and Hazel as hostages.

Saga25 03

In one scene both hilarious and poignant, Alana tries to talk sense into Dengo, trying to convince him of the truth, insisting he knows the truth, saying to him “It’s written all over your face.”

Screen Shot 2015-10-22 at 7.56.49 AM

Meanwhile, Marko has a temporary alliance with the robot princeling’s father, Prince IV. Both are trying to get to Dengo and Alana to get their children back.

Saga25 05

In fact, the love of children is central to this story. And the aspects of child-rearing – with its stress, frustrations, exhausting challenges, and joy – and family – are incredibly moving and endearing.

1292704530967869098

A side story concerns a mercenary named “The Will” who was chasing Marko and his family but was mortally injured, and needs dragon sperm to save him. Working on that particular project are Marko’s horned ex-girlfriend Gwendolyn, a wild cat who can distinguish lies from truth (L.C. or Lying Cat), The Will’s brother Brand and his hilariously normal-looking dog, and the little girl Sophie.

Saga25 04

With all of this wild weirdness, most of the characters seem like “regular” people [sic] with the same insecurities, hopes, fears, and passions that most “people” have. Alana wears fuzzy bedroom slippers around the house, Sophie and Brand roast marshmallows around a fire while out on their quest for dragon sperm, and many of the characters constantly question their own values and commitments and try to be better and do the right thing, especially with respect to one another. As Hazel says at one point:

“Every relationship is an education. Each new person we welcome into our hearts is a chance to evolve into something radically different than we used to be.”

In this volume, there are heartbreaking developments as the characters try to help those they love. But we know at least that Hazel will endure; her story isn’t over, and she promises, at the end of this volume, that her “education” is only beginning.

It seems inaccurate to say Fiona Staples is “just” the illustrator rather than a full co-author. In fact, Staples gets top billing in Volume 5, apparently having contributed to the storyline as well as the artwork. Her pictures are incredible – creative, expressive, and full of meaning, adding layers and implications far beyond the words. Vaughan’s dialogue is clever, satirical, and engaging, but Staples adds pure genius to the finished product.

Saga25 02

I can’t wait to see what happens next.

Evaluation: This is an outstanding “saga” whether you like graphic novels or not. In fact, usually I prefer pure text. But in this series, the artwork adds immeasurably to the story, and brings it alive in a way I’m not sure pure text could accomplish. This is not by any means a series for kids – you will see graphic (in both senses) depictions of childbirth, oral sex, anal sex, masturbation – just about anything you can think of (or more accurately, might have never thought of!).

Another great aspect of this series is that no one gender or race has claim to any particular qualities, whether courage or compassion. But overall, the females tend to be more formidable, powerful and tough, and the guys more nurturing. The political commentary is as powerful as it is subtle. This series is hilarious, moving, exciting, romantic, action-packed, and crazily mentally stimulating, all at once.

Rating: 4/5

Published by Image Comics, Inc., 2015

Posted in Book Review | Tagged | 2 Comments

Black History Month Review of “Showdown: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court Nomination That Changed America” by Wil Haygood

Thurgood Marshall may not have worn a cape and tights, but he was, nevertheless, every inch a superhero.

Wil Haygood takes us back to Marshall’s childhood to tell us what it was like for a young, smart, ambitious kid growing up in a world in which he couldn’t even use most public bathrooms or be admitted to many restaurants and hotels. But this never diminished his spirit and determination. On the contrary, it inspired him further not only to achieve, but to work for change for everyone else.

9780307957191

This book uses the Senate confirmation hearings for Marshall’s Supreme Court nomination as scaffolding to structure his story; the author goes back and forth in time, basically telling in large part the history of black America from post-Reconstruction times onward. It is a nasty and brutal history which will often have you cringing (there are, for example, two blow-by-blow accounts of lynchings, though the accounts are quite germane), but will greatly enhance your understanding of the country as it is today.

Thurgood Marshall with the president who nominated him to the Supreme Court, Lyndon Johnson

Thurgood Marshall with the president who nominated him to the Supreme Court, Lyndon Johnson

Evaluation: If you only read about the life of one trailblazing hero, I recommend reading about Thurgood Marshall. His unparalleled bravery in spite of constant threats against his life, his unflagging dedication to others, and his unfailing good humor and optimism in the face of unrelenting efforts by whites to keep him down, is utterly amazing and inspirational.

I’ve seen some reviews opine that Devil in the Grove, also about Marshall, is superior to this book. I found it excellent as well, but the fact is, when you’re writing about a true giant of a man like Marshall, it’s hard to go wrong.

Rating: 4.5/5

Hardcover published by Alfred A. Knopf, 2015. Audiobook published unabridged on 12 CDs (14 1/2 listening hours) by Random House Audio, an imprint of the Penguin Random House Audio Publishing Group, 2014

A Few Notes on the Audio Production: The narrator, Dominic Hoffman, is nothing short of sensational. He has a couple of mispronunciations (e.g., Estes Kefauver), but I can’t really complain because his overall performance is so outstanding.

Posted in Black History Month, Book Review | Tagged , | 4 Comments